Glossary of Terms

Official Warning

An official warning is a mandatory penalty with any finding of academic misconduct. An official warning is a notation on the student's record remaining either until graduation or, in some cases, until such time as a remedial course has been successfully completed.


A bibliography is a list of all the works used when doing your research. It might, therefore, include works that you did not specifically cite in the text of your paper, but which were helpful to you as background studies. The term "bibliography" is more often used in the arts and social sciences than in the sciences, which would probably conclude a research paper with "References," or "Works Cited" pages. These last two formats list only the works actually cited in the paper.

Primary sources

A primary source is the original text. It could be a literary or philosophical work, an historical document, the report of original research, or original data.

Secondary Sources

A secondary source is where other people write about or comment on a topic. Examples are: biographies, writing about literary or philosophical texts , political or historical events, discussions of scientific data, or studies of issues.

[ ]

A square bracket around letters or words indicates that the writer has changed something from the author's original text.

. . . .

These four spaced periods tell us that some words have been omitted here as indicated by the first three dots. The fourth and last dot indicates that the omitted text included at least the end of one sentence.

Review of literature

For a discussion of how to write a review of literature see Writing a Literature Review